Year    –    Event

1403 Henry IV defeats the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England.
1667 The Peace of Breda ends the Second Anglo-Dutch War and cedes Dutch New Amsterdam to the English.
1711 Russia and Turkey sign the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
1718 The Treaty of Passarowitz is signed by Austria, Venice and the OttomanEmpire.
1773 Pope Clement XIV abolishes the Jesuit order.
1798 Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Arab Mameluke warriors at the Battle of the Pyramids.
1861 In the first major battle of the Civil War, Confederate forces defeat the Union Army along Bull Run near Manassas Junction, Virginia. The battle becomes known as Manassas by the Confederates, while the Union calls it Bull Run.
1865 Wild Bill Hickok kills gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Missouri, in what is regarded as the first formal quick-draw duel.
1873 The James Gang robs a train in Adair, Iowa.
1896 Mary Church Terrell founds the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.
1906 French Captain Alfred Dreyfus is vindicated of his earlier court-martial for spying for Germany.
1919 The British House of Lords ratifies the Versailles Treaty.
1925 John Scopes is found guilty for teaching evolution in Dayton, Tenn., and is fined $100.
1941 France accepts Japan’s demand for military control of Indochina.
1944 U.S. Army and Marine forces land on Guam in the Marianas.
1954 The French sign an armistice with the Viet Minh that ends the war but divides Vietnam into two countries.
1960 Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the first woman prime minister of Ceylon.

Born on July 21

1881 Frederick Dick, physician.
1899 Hart Crane, poet (The Bridge).
1899 Ernest Hemingway, American novelist and short-story writer.
1911 Marshall McLuhan, communication theorist (The Medium is the Message).
1920 Isaac Stern, Russian-born violinist.
1921 Billy Taylor, jazz pianist.
1933 John Gardner, poet and novelist (Grendel, October Light).
1943 Tess Gallagher, American writer.
1952 Robin Williams, American comedian and actor.
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