Year     –     Event

1298 King Edward I defeats Scots under William Wallace at Falkirk.
1515 Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forge an alliance between the Hapsburg and Jagiello dynasties in Vienna.
1652 Prince Conde’s rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin’s loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
1789 Thomas Jefferson becomes the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
1812 A British army under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French at Salamanca, Spain.
1814 Five Indian tribes in Ohio make peace with the United States and declare war on Britain.
1881 The first volume of The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, is published.
1894 The first automobile race takes place between Paris and Rouen, France.
1934 American gangster John Dillinger is shot dead by FBI officers outside a Chicago cinema.
1938 The Third Reich issues special identity cards for Jewish Germans.
1943 Palermo, Sicily surrenders to General George S. Patton’s Seventh Army.
1966 B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.

Born on July 22

1822 Gregor Johann Mendel, Austrian botanist, genetics pioneer.
1849 Emma Lazarus, American poet.
1881 Margery Williams Bianco, author (The Velveteen Rabbit).
1882 Edward Hopper, painter (Nighthawks).
1887 Gustav Hertz, German physicist.
1888 Selman Abraham Waksman, biochemist.
1893 Karl Menninger, American physiscian, founder of the Menninger Foundation.
1898 Stephen Vincent Benet, poet and short-story writer (John Brown’s Body).
1898 Alexander Calder, sculptor.
1908 Amy Vanderbilt, American journalist, etiquette authority.
1923 Robert Dole, U.S. Senator and presidential candidate.
1932 Megan Terry, playwright (Calm Down Mother, Goona Goona).
1936 Tom Robbins, novelist (Another Roadside Attraction, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues).
1946 Paul Schrader, screenwriter and film director (Taxi Driver).
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