|1588||The Spanish Armada is sighted off the coast of England.|
|1602||The Duke of Biron is executed in Paris for conspiring with Spain and Savoy against King Henry IV of France.|
|1603||Bartholomew Gilbert is killed in Virginia by Indians, during a search for the missing Roanoke colonists.|
|1693||The Army of the Grand Alliance is destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden.|
|1830||Liberals led by the Marquis of Lafayette seize Paris in opposition to the king’s restrictions on citizens’ rights.|
|1848||A rebellion against British rule is put down in Tipperary, Ireland.|
|1858||Japan signs a treaty of commerce and friendship with the United States.|
|1862||Confederates are routed by Union guerrillas at Moore’s Mill, Missouri.|
|1875||Peasants in Bosnia and Herzegovina rebel against the Ottoman army.|
|1915||U.S. Marines land at Port-au-Prince to protect American interests in Haiti.|
|1921||Adolf Hitler becomes the president of the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis).|
On this day in 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the world’s first baby to be conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) is born at Oldham and District General Hospital in Manchester, England, to parents Lesley and Peter Brown. The healthy baby was delivered shortly before midnight by caesarean section and weighed in at five pounds, 12 ounces.
Before giving birth to Louise, Lesley Brown had suffered years of infertility due to blocked fallopian tubes. In November 1977, she underwent the then-experimental IVF procedure. A mature egg was removed from one of her ovaries and combined in a laboratory dish with her husband’s sperm to form an embryo. The embryo then was implanted into her uterus a few days later. Her IVF doctors, British gynecologist Patrick Steptoe and scientist Robert Edwards, had begun their pioneering collaboration a decade earlier. Continue reading “July 25 – World’s First Test Tube Baby Born”
Year – Event
|1298||King Edward I defeats Scots under William Wallace at Falkirk.|
|1515||Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forge an alliance between the Hapsburg and Jagiello dynasties in Vienna.|
|1652||Prince Conde’s rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin’s loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.|
|1789||Thomas Jefferson becomes the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.|
|1812||A British army under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French at Salamanca, Spain.|
|1814||Five Indian tribes in Ohio make peace with the United States and declare war on Britain.|
|1881||The first volume of The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, is published.|
|1894||The first automobile race takes place between Paris and Rouen, France.|
|1934||American gangster John Dillinger is shot dead by FBI officers outside a Chicago cinema.|
|1938||The Third Reich issues special identity cards for Jewish Germans.|
|1943||Palermo, Sicily surrenders to General George S. Patton’s Seventh Army.|
|1966||B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.|
Year – Event
|1403||Henry IV defeats the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England.|
|1667||The Peace of Breda ends the Second Anglo-Dutch War and cedes Dutch New Amsterdam to the English.|
|1711||Russia and Turkey sign the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.|
|1718||The Treaty of Passarowitz is signed by Austria, Venice and the OttomanEmpire.|
|1773||Pope Clement XIV abolishes the Jesuit order.|
|1798||Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Arab Mameluke warriors at the Battle of the Pyramids. Continue reading “July 21”|
At 10:56 p.m. EDT, American astronaut Neil Armstrong, 240,000 miles from Earth, speaks these words to more than a billion people listening at home: “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” Stepping off the lunar landing module Eagle, Armstrong became the first human to walk on the surface of the moon.
The American effort to send astronauts to the moon has its origins in a famous appeal President John F. Kennedy made to a special joint session of Congress on May 25, 1961: “I believe this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth.
On July 19, 1985, Christa McAuliffe of New Hampshire was chosen to be the first schoolteacher to ride aboard the space shuttle. (McAuliffe and six other crew members died when the Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff in January 1986.)
On this date:
In 1553, King Henry VIII’s daughter Mary was proclaimed Queen of England after pretender Lady Jane Grey was deposed.
In 1848, a pioneer women’s rights convention convened in Seneca Falls, New York.
In 1903, the first Tour de France was won by Maurice Garin. Continue reading “July 19”
Disneyland, Walt Disney’s metropolis of nostalgia, fantasy, and futurism, opens on July 17, 1955. The $17 million theme park was built on 160 acres of former orange groves in Anaheim, California, and soon brought in staggering profits. Today, Disneyland hosts more than 14 million visitors a year, who spend close to $3 billion.
Walt Disney, born in Chicago in 1901, worked as a commercial artist before setting up a small studio in Los Angeles to produce animated cartoons. In 1928, his short film Steamboat Willy, starring the character “Mickey Mouse,” was a national sensation. Continue reading “July 17 – Disneyland opens”
On this day in 1945, at 5:29:45 a.m., the Manhattan Project comes to an explosive end as the first atom bomb is successfully tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico.
Plans for the creation of a uranium bomb by the Allies were established as early as 1939, when Italian emigre physicist Enrico Fermi met with U.S. Navy department officials at Columbia University to discuss the use of fissionable materials for military purposes. Continue reading “July 16 – Atom bomb successfully tested”